Superlinear scaling for innovation in cities

Superlinear scaling in cities, which appears in sociological quantities such as economic productivity and creative output relative to urban population size, has been observed, but not been given a satisfactory theoretical explanation. Here we provide a network model for the superlinear relationship between population size and innovation found in cities, with a reasonable range for the exponent

Arbesman, Kleinberg, and Strogatz – Superlinear scaling for innovation in cities

From 2009, work related to what Geoffrey West discusses in his book Scale.